regio UE GR MDRAP sdp fonduri_ue

About the region

Târnava Mică River (German Kleine Kokel, Hungarian Kis-Küküllő) is a river which by the confluence with Târnava Mare River forms in the Town of Blaj Târnava River. It sources from Bucin Pass, Gurghiu Mountains and has a length of 191 km.

On the upper course of Tarnava Mica River are located the following towns: Sângeorgiu de Pădure, Sovata, the communes Bălăuşeri, Fântânele, Veţca, Neaua, Ghindari, Chibed, Sărăţeni, Atid, Praid and the corresponding villages which are situated in the southeastern part of Mures county, situated in the central and north-eastern part of the country in the center of the Transylvanian Plateau.

Geographical characteristics

The territory is situated on Tarvava Mica Valley, in the area of the upper course of Tarvana Mica River, the contact point of Tarnavelor Plateau with the eastern Carphatian piedmont.

The relief of this area is hilly, kneaded with large gradients, deep erosions, landslides. The surrounding hills are covered with forests.

The relief of the territory consists of a basin and hills with o height over 500 m, showing traces of the events which occurred in the geological periods, being visible by the collapse of the banks, deposits of gravel, sand, clay, horizontal or slightly inclined layers of sandstone in different thicknesses.

The territory is a component of the Tarnava Mica subcarpathian region, which stretches from Goagiu Valley to Niraj Valley and includes not only the territories subordinated to the basin of Tarnava Mica River, but partially also the drainage basins of Tarnava Mare and Niraj.

In the past, Tarnava Mica River has created new beds which can also be seen very well nowadays, they suffered small alterations due to agricultural works. Today, the course of the river is quite straight with few bends with a pretty fast discharge also because of the extraction of construction materials, like sand and gravel from the river, which obstructs the formation of new beds.

Landslides are common in the region due to the large amount of clay, which can be found in the territory and which is covered only by a thin layer of soil.

The area has natural gas reserves, the subsoil contains natural salt deposits, sedimentary rocks: gravel, sand, which could be very useful as raw materials or prefabricates in the construction industry.

Climate characteristics

In the temperate-continental climate with transitional character specific to our country with a wide variety of features, the territory is situated in the sector of the moderate continental climate of hills and forests.In general are common hot summers and cold winters, the territory being situated at the foothills.

The annual average temperature ranges from 8°C and 9°C in the area, the coldest month is January with -5,1° and the warmest month is July, the average temperature of this month is 18.7°C.


Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, presenting a continental variation with maximum rainfall at the end of the spring and beginning of the summer, the greatest amount of rainfall occurs in June with an average of 98 mm, and the least amount of rainfall occurs during the cold season of the year. The least amount of rainfall occurs in February with an average of 30 mm.

The annual average rainfall varies between 600-700 mm, during the transition from spring to summer it amount of rainfall increases, whereas during the winter season decreases. The frequency of days with an amount of precipitation is 115-125 days/year.

Due to its location in the central part of the country, this territory located in Mures County is subject to warm air mass movements from west and northwest. In general the presence of the wind in the area is of 31%. The wind speeds in this area with 2,4 meters per second. The most common winds with high speed occur in February and alternate until the end of the summer. The lowest wind speeds occur during the autumn and beginning of the summer.

The climate supports grain cultivation and fruit farming, some local people successfully dedicated to viticulture.

Subsoil resources:

− unexploited sulphurous mineral water

− unexploited thermal water

− clay as raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles

− saline water

localitati si retea hidro

 Hydrologic features:

Groundwater is present as an aquifer complex with free surface, the hydrostatic level measurement the moment of the observation was -0,4 -1,1 m depth, lingered both in alluvial deposits and in pyroclastic materials from the bedding.

The groundwater originates entirely from the rainfall through massive infiltrations which occur due to the permeability of the soil. Near the river there is a tight correlation between the water of the river and the groundwater depending on the seasonal variations. The mutual discharge occurs radially from upstream to downstream. Due to the soil configuration and to its high permeability it is considered that there are hydrodynamic underground streams, especially near the minor bed of Târnava Mică River. In this sector, Târnava Mică River has a pluvial-nival supply system, with maximum water supply capacity during the spring and minimum during the winter, when the water supply is ensured mostly from the groundwater.

 − The subsoil resources are: unexploited sulphurous mineral water, unexploited thermal water and saline water.

Surface water

The hydrological network of the territory consists of Târnava Mică River and its tributary streams. Târnava Mică River springs form Gurghiu Mountains, the springs’ altitude is 1.190 meters above sea level and the influx altitude is 255 m above sea level. It has 25 tributary streams and crosses 37 towns and villages and has a length of 191 km.

The river water is first class water quality, periodically the chloride ions and sodium chloride concentration exceeds because of the Salt mine Praid.
Cuşmed Brook is the most important tributary stream with the greatest volume rate of water flow into the drainage basin of Târnava Mică River.

Bezidu Nou Lake

Between 1975 and 1990 a dam was built, which created an artificial lake, Bezidu Nou Lake, by sacrificing Bezidu-Nou village. The population was evicted and the village was flooded. Since the summer of 1988 rest on the floor of the lake one thousand houses, a clinic, a kindergarten and a Unitarian church. Until the summer of 2014, the Catholic Church which was built on a hill pierced the surface of the water, until it decayed and finally collapsed into the lake on June 2014.

The purpose of this dam was to defend the downstream areas and Târnăveni city against flood, to supply with industrial and drink water Târnăveni city, and also the neighboring towns and villages of the lake in the future.

The filling was realized at maximum capacity of 31 billion cubic meters, out of which a volume of 14 billion cubic meters (normal level of retention) necessary for water supply and hydroelectric power water use. The Bezid Lake has a good quality water from ecological point of view, which can be also used for human purposes. The water surface of the lake is about 150 ha.

Since 1996, the Water Authority of Mures County in collaboration with Association of Hunters and Fishermen Mures County has developed a fish population program for Bezid Lake. Thus, in the lake can be found the following fish species: pike, zander, carp, rainbow trout, crucian carp, bream, asp, roach, rudd, perch, phytophagous carp, grass carp, etc.


Due to the fact that territory is mostly located on Târnava Mică River terraces, in a small creep, quite well developed and surrounded by hills which sometimes exceed 450 meters height, the forest vegetation consists mostly of deciduous and only a small part of coniferous. Besides these deciduous species, there are also mixed forests consisting of beech, hornbeam, elm, maple, ash and cherry, which represents 9% of the deciduous forests vegetation. The lowland is used mainly for agricultural purposes and secondly as meadows.

Nemoral fauna (oakwood and beechwood forest)

The mammal fauna is strongly affected by the anthropogenic factor, mostly consisting of rodents such as field mouse, squirrel, different dormice (Glis Glis- large dormouse, Dryomys nitedula –forest dormouse, Muscardinus avellanarius-hazel dormouse, Elyomis quercinus- garden dormouse) and in the wet areas bank voles can be found. Among other mammals there are deer, fallow deer, badgers, martens, wild boar, fox and hare.

In the beech and spruce forests we can find animals such as the bear, wolf, fox, lynx, squirrel, wild boar and many birds; in lowland we find the hare, fox, wolf, ferret, etc.
Among birds, we can find a great number of culvers, turtle dove, black bird, singing thrush, linnet, eastern olivaceous warbler, dartford warbler, cuckoo, woodpecker such as the grey woodpecker and the great woodpecker. Among the bird of prey are common northern goshawk and pigeon hawk.

The reptile fauna is poor, rarely do we meet the adder, and the most common is the blind snake. Among amphibians we can find the agile frog Rana dalmatina.
The region Târnavelor Hills –Nirajului Valley has been declared a protected area as part of the ecological network Natura 2000 in Romania. The area consists of deciduous woodland with oak and beech forests, pastures and meadows, as wells as farmland. It is an important habitat for many bird species of Community interest.